What Is Permaculture Gardening and Why You Need It Now!

Embark on the enchanting journey of permaculture gardening, a transformative approach that harmonizes nature’s interconnectedness and sustainability. Discover its magic and transformative benefits, from revitalizing your landscape with purposeful plant selections to unraveling the guiding principles of organic farming. This guide serves as your gateway, offering actionable steps and insights to kickstart your permaculture gardening adventure, empowering you to create a flourishing, eco-conscious haven right in your own green space.

Unlocking the Magic: What Is Permaculture Gardening and Why You Need It Now!

Diving into permaculture gardening is like discovering the secret recipe for an ever-thriving garden that’s both eco-friendly and bountiful. So, what’s the buzz all about? Picture this: a flourishing garden where plants not only look beautiful but work together like a well-choreographed dance. That’s permaculture at its core—a holistic approach that mimics nature’s harmony, tapping into its genius for sustainability. You might wonder why you should join this green movement now, right? Well, let’s unravel the magic!

Permaculture gardening isn’t just about growing plants; it’s about growing food and creating a self-sustaining ecosystem. Think of it as a puzzle where each piece plays a vital role. Take companion planting, for instance. By strategically placing plants that support each other’s growth, you create a natural defense system against pests and diseases. It’s like having your own green guardians!

But that’s just the tip of the iceberg. The beauty of permaculture lies in its principles—simple yet profound guidelines that shape your gardening journey. Whether it’s “catch and store energy” by utilizing natural resources or “use and value diversity” by fostering a rich tapestry of plant life, these principles empower you to work with nature, not against it.

Now, here’s the kicker: why do you need permaculture gardening in your life right now? Because it’s not just about the garden; it’s a lifestyle shift. It’s about reducing waste, conserving resources, and creating a space that nurtures both you and the environment. Imagine savoring homegrown produce, knowing it’s free from harmful chemicals and nurtured with love. That’s the power of permaculture—transforming your space into a sanctuary that gives back.

10 Benefits of Permaculture Gardening That Will Transform Your Green Space

Benefit 1: Bountiful Harvests – Imagine plucking fresh, organic produce from your garden, knowing it’s grown in harmony with nature. Permaculture gardening maximizes yields while minimizing inputs, resulting in an abundance of homegrown goodness.

Benefit 2: Eco-friendly Practices – Embracing permaculture means adopting sustainable methods like composting, water conservation, and diverse natural systems for pest control. You’re not just gardening; you’re nurturing the environment too!

Benefit 3: Biodiversity Boost – By cultivating a diverse range of plants, you create a vibrant ecosystem that invites beneficial insects, birds, and wildlife. This biodiversity strengthens your garden’s resilience against pests and diseases.

Benefit 4: Soil Health – Permaculture techniques, such as mulching and minimal tilling, enhance soil fertility and structure. Healthy soil means healthier plants and a flourishing garden.

Benefit 5: Water-Wise Solutions – Implementing water-saving strategies like rainwater harvesting and using drought-tolerant plants conserves this precious resource. You’ll watch your garden thrive even in dry spells!

Benefit 6: Energy Efficiency – Designing your garden with energy in mind, such as using natural contours for water flow or strategically placing plants for shade, reduces the need for additional energy inputs.

Benefit 7: Low Maintenance – A well-planned permaculture garden requires less ongoing maintenance. Once established, it becomes a self-sustaining ecosystem that demands less of your time and effort.

Benefit 8: Healthier Ecosystems – Your garden becomes a haven for pollinators, beneficial insects, and birds. By supporting these creatures, you contribute to broader ecosystem health.

Benefit 9: Climate Resilience – Permaculture gardens are adaptable to changing climates. The diversity of plants and ecosystem resilience can withstand weather fluctuations.

Benefit 10: Personal Well-being – Engaging with nature through permaculture gardening isn’t just about the garden; it’s about fostering a deeper connection with the natural world, promoting relaxation and well-being.

Kickstart Your Journey: How to Start a Permaculture Garden Today!

First things first, understand that permaculture isn’t just about gardening—it’s a mindset, a design system, a way of working with nature rather than against it. Picture your garden as a mini-ecosystem where plants, soil, and wildlife collaborate to create a self-sustaining paradise. Exciting, right?

Now, let’s lay the groundwork. Start by familiarizing yourself with your space. Take a good look at your yard—observe how the sun moves across it, where water accumulates, and which areas get more shade. This understanding will guide your garden layout, helping you make the most of every nook and cranny.

Next up, zoning! Divide your garden into zones based on how often you’ll visit them and their specific needs. For instance, the area closest to your house (Zone 1) could host herbs and veggies you use daily, while farther areas (Zone 4) might be for wilder growth or trees needing less attention.

When it comes to plants, go native and diverse. Native plants are adapted to your region’s climate and soil, making them hardy and low-maintenance. Mix them up with different species—this diversity creates a resilient ecosystem, attracting beneficial insects and wildlife, while also reducing the risk of pests and diseases.

Ah, mulch—your garden’s best friend! Layer organic materials like straw, leaves, or wood chips over the soil. This not only retains moisture and suppresses weeds but also nourishes the soil as it breaks down, creating a healthy environment for your plants to thrive.

Remember, Rome wasn’t built in a day, and neither is a permaculture garden. Start small, observe, and learn from nature’s wisdom. Each step you take, whether it’s planting your first native species or implementing water-saving techniques, contributes to your garden’s sustainability.

Essential Plants for Permaculture Gardens: Revamp Your Landscape

When it comes to permaculture gardening, selecting the right plants is like assembling the perfect team for your garden—the ones that work together to create a harmonious, self-sustaining ecosystem. Let’s dive into the world of essential plants that can truly revamp your landscape and elevate your permaculture game.

First up, let’s talk about natives! Native plants are superheroes in the permaculture world. They’re adapted to your region’s soil and climate, making them resilient and low-maintenance. Take, for example, the mighty Milkweed. It not only supports pollinators but also acts as a host plant for monarch butterflies—a win-win for biodiversity.

Next on the list: nitrogen-fixers! Plants like clover or legumes have a special ability to take nitrogen from the air and fix it in the soil, enriching it for other plants. They’re like nature’s fertilizer, nourishing your garden naturally.

Ah, the fruit-bearing champions! Integrate fruit trees and bushes into your landscape. They not only provide delicious treats but also contribute to the diversity of your garden. Think apple trees, blueberry bushes, or even a pomegranate shrub—each brings its unique flavors and benefits.

Now, let’s not forget about ground cover. Plants like creeping thyme or perennial herbs act as living mulch, protecting the soil, conserving moisture, and suppressing weeds. They’re the unsung heroes that keep your garden beds happy.

Lastly, consider adding dynamic accumulators to your garden arsenal. These powerhouse plants have deep roots that mine nutrients from deep within the soil, making these nutrients available to other plants when their leaves decompose. Comfrey is a prime example—an excellent accumulator of nutrients like potassium and calcium.

By carefully selecting and integrating these essential plants into your permaculture garden, you’re not just creating a beautiful landscape but fostering a resilient, self-sustaining ecosystem. These plants work together, supporting each other and ultimately creating a thriving haven right in your backyard. So, let’s get planting and watch your garden transform into a vibrant, biodiverse paradise!

Exploring the Soul: Unveiling the Characteristics of Permaculture Gardens

The world of permaculture gardening is like exploring the soul of nature itself. It’s about unraveling the intricate characteristics that make these gardens so unique and impactful. Let’s take a closer look at what sets permaculture gardens apart and how they embody the essence of sustainable living.

One of the key characteristics of a permaculture garden is its emphasis on diversity. It’s like creating a vibrant tapestry where each plant plays a crucial role. By cultivating a diverse range of plants—herbs, flowers, fruits, and vegetables—you’re fostering a resilient ecosystem. This diversity not only enhances the aesthetic appeal but also creates a healthy environment where plants support each other’s growth.

Another defining trait is the concept of zones. Permaculture gardens are strategically divided into zones based on their functions and proximity to human activity. Zone 1, the most frequented area, often hosts high-maintenance plants like herbs and vegetables that require regular attention. As you move farther away, zones gradually transition to wilder, less-managed spaces.

Permaculture gardens are designed with the landscape in mind. They mimic natural patterns and contours, working with the land rather than against it. For instance, swales—gentle depressions in the landscape—capture and direct water, preventing erosion and nurturing plants. This design approach maximizes efficiency and sustainability.

Furthermore, permaculture gardens embrace the concept of stacking functions. Every element within the garden serves multiple purposes. Take a fruit tree, for instance; it not only provides a harvest but also offers shade, attracts pollinators, and contributes to soil health when its leaves decompose.

Moreover, the principle of “observe and interact” is at the heart of permaculture gardening. It encourages continuous observation of nature’s patterns and cycles, allowing gardeners to make informed decisions and adapt their practices accordingly.

By embodying these characteristics, these permaculture farms and gardens become more than just spaces for growing plants—they become living, breathing ecosystems that mirror nature’s harmony and sustainability. They inspire us to work hand in hand with the environment, fostering a deeper connection and respect for the natural world.

Mastering Permaculture Garden Practices: Your Step-by-Step Guide

Step 1: Observation is Key – Begin by observing your garden space. Take note of sunlight patterns, water flow, and natural features. Understanding these elements will guide your garden layout and plant selections.

When you keenly observe your garden space, you’re essentially tuning into the language of nature. Sunlight patterns dictate where to place sun-loving plants versus those that thrive in shade. Understanding these patterns allows you to design your garden layout intelligently. For instance, you might position taller plants or trees on the northern side to prevent overshadowing smaller, sun-seeking plants. Moreover, observing water flow patterns helps identify areas prone to waterlogging or drought. This knowledge enables strategic placement of water-loving plants in low-lying areas while drought-resistant ones can thrive in spots with less water accumulation. By harnessing these observations, you optimize plant growth, minimize water wastage, and foster a balanced ecosystem within your garden.

Natural features, such as existing trees or rocky areas, hold invaluable insights for your garden design. Trees can serve as windbreaks or provide shade for delicate plants, while rocky spots might create microclimates suitable for certain species. Integrating these features into your layout contributes to a more dynamic and efficient garden. Additionally, observing microclimates within your garden—areas with varying temperature and moisture levels—allows you to match plants to their ideal growing conditions. This detailed observation sets the stage for a garden that not only survives but thrives harmoniously with the natural elements it interacts with.

Step 2: Zone it Out – Divide your garden into zones based on frequency of use and plant needs. Zone 1, closer to your home, might house your kitchen herbs and veggies for easy access, while Zone 5 could be a wilder area needing minimal intervention.

Dividing your garden into zones is akin to creating a symphony where each section plays a unique yet harmonious role in the garden orchestra. Zone 1, the closest to your home, serves as the high-traffic area where you frequent daily. This zone is ideal for planting kitchen herbs, vegetables, and frequently accessed plants. Placing these essential plants here not only ensures easy access for harvesting but also encourages regular care and attention, fostering their growth and health. Additionally, incorporating perennial herbs or salad greens in Zone 1 allows for quick snips of fresh flavors for your meals without the hassle of trekking through the garden.

As we move farther from the house, Zone 2 emerges—a space that might house fruit trees, bushes, or plants that require periodic attention but not daily care. This zone marks a transition from high-maintenance to less-frequently tended areas. Here, fruit trees like apples, pears, or berries find their home. While they might need occasional pruning or harvest, they don’t demand the same level of attention as Zone 1 plants. Moreover, Zone 2 can include plants that support wildlife or serve multiple functions, contributing to the overall ecosystem while requiring moderate care. This thoughtful zoning strategy not only optimizes your gardening efforts but also creates a balanced and efficient garden that works with your lifestyle and the needs of the plants.

Step 3: Space Efficiency – Make the most of your space by utilizing vertical gardening techniques or companion planting. For instance, grow climbing beans alongside corn to maximize space and soil utilization.

Space efficiency in gardening is like mastering a clever puzzle where every inch of your garden area is utilized to its fullest potential. Vertical gardening techniques offer a brilliant solution to maximize space. By training plants to grow upward, you not only save horizontal space but also create a visually appealing garden. For example, trellises or arbors provide support for climbing plants like beans, cucumbers, or peas. When paired with taller crops such as corn or sunflowers, these climbers utilize the vertical space, while the taller plants serve as sturdy supports. This vertical arrangement not only saves ground space but also enhances soil utilization by allowing different plants to share the same soil, each with its specific nutrient needs, effectively reducing competition and enhancing diversity.

Companion planting is another ingenious method to optimize space while fostering plant interactions that benefit each other. Pairing plants that complement or protect each other promotes healthier growth and better yield. Take the classic trio of corn, beans, and squash—known as the “Three Sisters.” This ancient Native American practice interplants these crops in a symbiotic relationship where corn provides a natural trellis for beans to climb, beans fix nitrogen in the soil beneficial for all three, and squash acts as living mulch, suppressing weeds and retaining soil moisture. Such synergistic plantings not only conserve space but also create a harmonious garden ecosystem where plants work together, benefiting from each other’s presence.

Step 4: Water-wise Gardening – Implement water-saving methods like installing rain barrels or using mulch to retain soil moisture. This not only conserves water but also reduces your garden’s reliance on irrigation.

Water-wise gardening is an artful practice that not only conserves a precious resource but also nurtures a healthier garden ecosystem. Installing rain barrels is a simple yet effective way to harness nature’s gift. These barrels collect rainwater from rooftops, providing a sustainable water source for your garden. By capturing and storing rainwater, you reduce reliance on municipal water supplies, especially during dry spells or water restrictions. Moreover, using harvested rainwater for watering your plants minimizes the use of treated water, which can contain additives like chlorine that might not be ideal for your garden’s health. It’s a win-win situation—reducing water bills while ensuring your garden thrives on natural, untreated water.

Mulching is another invaluable technique in water-wise gardening. Applying a layer of mulch—whether it’s organic material like wood chips, straw, or even compost—over the soil surface acts as a protective blanket. This layer locks in moisture, shielding the soil from direct sunlight and wind exposure, which helps prevent evaporation. As a result, your soil retains moisture for longer periods, reducing the frequency of watering. Additionally, mulch offers other benefits like regulating soil temperature, suppressing weed growth, and enhancing soil fertility as it breaks down over time. It’s a fantastic multi-functional tool in the water-wise gardener’s arsenal, promoting a more sustainable and resilient garden while conserving water resources.

Step 5: Composting Magic – Embrace the art of composting. Turn kitchen scraps and garden waste into nutrient-rich compost that feeds your plants naturally.

Composting is the alchemy of gardening—the transformation of seemingly mundane kitchen scraps and garden waste into a potent elixir that revitalizes your soil and nourishes your plants. It’s a natural recycling process that mimics nature’s cycle, converting organic matter into nutrient-rich humus, often referred to as “black gold” for gardeners. Kitchen scraps like fruit peels, vegetable trimmings, and coffee grounds, along with garden waste such as leaves, grass clippings, and pruned branches, are the raw ingredients for this magical process. As these materials decompose, they break down into a nutrient-dense, dark, crumbly substance—compost—that’s teeming with beneficial microorganisms, essential for healthy soil and plant growth.

Beyond the obvious benefit of reducing waste sent to landfills, composting contributes significantly to soil health. This organic matter, when added to the soil, improves its structure and texture. Compost acts as a sponge, enhancing soil’s water retention capabilities, preventing erosion, and promoting aeration—ideal conditions for healthy root development. Moreover, the humus-rich compost provides a buffet of essential nutrients for plants, including nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and a plethora of micronutrients. This nutrient boost not only nourishes your plants but also encourages robust growth and increased resilience to diseases and pests. Embracing the art of composting is not just about waste reduction; it’s about nurturing a vibrant and thriving garden ecosystem from the ground up.

Step 6: Plant Selection – Choose native plants adapted to your region’s climate. They’re more resilient and require less maintenance, contributing to a healthier ecosystem.

Selecting native plants tailored to your region’s climate is like inviting old friends into your garden—they’re familiar, reliable, and perfectly suited to the environment. Native plants have evolved over time to thrive in specific local conditions, making them resilient and well-adapted to your region’s climate, soil, and weather patterns. By choosing natives, you’re essentially aligning your garden with nature’s blueprint, promoting a balanced ecosystem. These plants have established relationships with local wildlife, providing food and habitat for pollinators, birds, and beneficial insects. For instance, native flowering plants like coneflowers or milkweed attract bees and butterflies, contributing to the vitality of your garden while supporting biodiversity.

Furthermore, the low-maintenance nature of native plants is a boon for gardeners. Once established, they typically require less intervention, reducing the need for excessive watering, fertilizers, or pest control measures. Their ability to thrive with minimal human intervention not only saves time and effort but also reduces the ecological footprint of your garden. Native plants play a pivotal role in restoring and preserving the natural balance of ecosystems, as they have adapted to coexist with the local environment over centuries. By incorporating these plants into your garden, you’re not just beautifying your landscape; you’re participating in the conservation of indigenous flora and fostering a healthier, more sustainable environment for generations to come.

Step 7: Embrace Diversity – Create a diverse garden by interplanting different species. This fosters a balanced ecosystem, attracting beneficial insects and promoting soil health.

Embracing diversity within your garden is akin to orchestrating a magnificent symphony where every plant plays a vital role, contributing to the harmony of the entire ecosystem. Interplanting various species creates a tapestry of life that mimics natural ecosystems. By mixing different plants—such as herbs, flowers, vegetables, and shrubs—within the same space, you’re fostering a balanced environment. This diversity encourages a range of habitats and microclimates, providing niches for beneficial insects, birds, and other wildlife. For instance, planting marigolds alongside tomatoes deters certain pests, while attracting pollinators like bees and butterflies. This natural pest management and pollination strategy not only enhances your garden’s health but also reduces the need for chemical interventions.

Moreover, diverse plantings contribute to soil health and vitality. Different plant species have unique root structures and nutrient needs, which, when combined, create a rich and well-structured soil. Some plants, known as dynamic accumulators, draw specific nutrients from deep within the soil and make them available to neighboring plants when their leaves decompose. Additionally, diverse root systems break up compacted soil, improve drainage, and prevent erosion, enhancing overall soil health. This biological diversity also stimulates microbial activity in the soil, promoting the growth of beneficial soil organisms that contribute to nutrient cycling and soil fertility. In essence, embracing diversity within your garden isn’t just about aesthetics; it’s a fundamental pillar for nurturing a thriving, resilient, and self-sustaining ecosystem.

Demystifying Permaculture Gardens: Understanding the Essentials

Demystifying permaculture gardens unveils a world of sustainable and harmonious gardening practices that can transform your outdoor space into a thriving ecosystem. It’s not just about planting; it’s a holistic approach that mimics nature’s patterns and systems. Think of it as a beautiful dance where every element—the plants, soil, water, and wildlife—plays a crucial role in creating a self-sustaining garden. Understanding the essentials of permaculture gardening is like discovering the keys to unlock a garden that thrives effortlessly while benefiting the environment.

One key aspect of permaculture gardening is observing and interacting with your garden. Start by getting to know your space—its sunlight patterns, water flow, and natural features. These observations will guide your decisions, from where to place plants to how to design the layout. For instance, understanding the sun’s path helps in choosing the right plants for specific areas. Sun-loving vegetables like tomatoes or peppers thrive in spots that receive ample sunlight, while shade-tolerant herbs like mint or parsley flourish in shadier areas. By observing and interacting with these natural elements, you’re essentially becoming a co-creator in your garden’s ecosystem.

Zoning your garden based on plant needs and frequency of use is another fundamental principle of permaculture gardening. Dividing your garden into zones—ranging from high-maintenance areas closer to your home to wilder, low-intervention spaces—helps in efficient planning and management. Picture Zone 1 as your go-to spot, housing frequently used plants like herbs and veggies for easy access. As you move farther, Zone 2 might host fruit trees or bushes requiring periodic attention, and so on. This zoning strategy not only maximizes productivity but also aligns your garden with your lifestyle, making gardening tasks more manageable and enjoyable.

Weighing In: Pros and Cons of Embracing Permaculture Gardening

Delving into the world of permaculture gardening opens up a universe of possibilities, but like any venture, it comes with its set of pros and cons. Understanding these can help you decide if this sustainable, organic gardening method aligns with your goals and lifestyle.

Let’s start with the positives—there’s a lot to love about permaculture gardening. One of its shining stars is sustainability. By following the permaculture design principles, you create a garden that works with nature, not against it. This approach nurtures a healthy ecosystem where plants, soil, water, and wildlife coexist in harmony. For instance, practicing companion planting, a permaculture technique, encourages beneficial interactions between plants, naturally preventing pests and diseases without relying on synthetic chemicals. It’s like having your own pest control squad built right into your garden!

Moreover, permaculture gardening encourages resource efficiency. From rainwater harvesting to composting, these practices minimize waste and maximize utility. Imagine collecting rainwater in barrels to water your garden or turning kitchen scraps into nutrient-rich compost—this not only reduces your environmental footprint but also saves money and fosters a more sustainable lifestyle. Plus, permaculture gardening promotes self-sufficiency by growing your own food, giving you access to fresh, organic produce right from your backyard.

Unveiling Permaculture Garden Principles: Ethics & Practices Revealed

Unveiling the principles behind permaculture gardening is like uncovering a treasure trove of wisdom for nurturing a thriving, sustainable garden. These permaculture farming principles aren’t just rules; they’re guiding philosophies that pave the way for a holistic approach to gardening in harmony with nature. Understanding these ethics and practices sets the stage for a more thoughtful and purposeful gardening journey.

One of the core principles of permaculture gardening is observing and interacting with nature. It’s like taking a step back to truly understand how natural systems function before diving into your garden. By observing the patterns and cycles in your surroundings—such as sunlight, wind direction, or water flow—you can design your garden to work in harmony with these natural elements. For instance, observing the sun’s path helps in determining the best spots for sun-loving plants, ensuring they receive adequate sunlight for healthy growth. It’s all about tuning in to nature’s rhythm and integrating these observations into your gardening practices.

Another fundamental principle is using and valuing renewable resources. Permaculture emphasizes utilizing resources that are abundant and renewable, reducing reliance on finite, non-renewable resources. For instance, harnessing rainwater through rain barrels or swales for irrigation instead of relying solely on municipal water demonstrates this principle. Similarly, using organic matter like compost as a natural fertilizer enriches the soil without the need for synthetic chemicals. It’s about working smarter, not harder, by harnessing the abundance nature provides while preserving resources for future generations.


As you wrap up this introduction to the world of permaculture gardening, you’re at the threshold of an incredible journey—one that promises to weave together nature’s harmony and sustainability in your own backyard. Permaculture gardening isn’t just about planting; it’s an enchanting experience that connects you deeply with the intricate dance of nature. With purposeful plant selections and an understanding of its guiding principles, you’re equipped to transform your landscape into a vibrant, purposeful haven.

This guide has offered you a glimpse into the magic of permaculture gardening, showcasing its transformative benefits. Now, armed with actionable steps and insightful tips, you’re poised to embark on this eco-conscious adventure. It’s a journey where each plant, each decision, and each observation becomes a step towards creating a flourishing space that not only nurtures your garden but also supports the larger ecosystem.

So, take these insights and dive into the world of permaculture gardening with confidence. Your garden is your canvas, and permaculture principles are your brushes—use them to paint a picture of sustainability, beauty, and balance. Let this be the beginning of your permaculture farm and journey towards a greener, more harmonious way of gardening, where nature’s wisdom becomes your guiding light. Happy gardening!


What is Permaculture Gardening?

Permaculture gardening is a more sustainable and regenerative agriculture approach that integrates design principles from nature to create a self-sufficient, productive ecosystem. It focuses on working with natural systems to minimize waste, maximize efficiency, and create a harmonious environment.

Why is Permaculture Gardening Important?

Permaculture gardening is crucial as it promotes sustainable practices, reduces environmental impact, and fosters biodiversity. It creates resilient ecosystems and productive systems that produce food, conserve resources, and mitigate climate effects.

How does Permaculture Gardening Differ from Conventional Gardening?

Unlike conventional gardening, permaculture focuses on mimicking natural ecosystems, emphasizing diversity, and using sustainable practices such as companion planting, water conservation, and soil regeneration. It aims for a holistic, long-term approach to gardening.

What Are the Key Principles of Permaculture Gardening?

The key principles of permaculture gardening include observation, using renewable resources, integrating diverse systems, valuing biodiversity, and designing for efficiency. These principles guide sustainable and resilient gardening practices.

What Plants Are Suitable for Permaculture Gardens?

Plants suitable for permaculture gardens are typically native or adaptive to the local climate, resilient, and offer multiple functions like food production, shade, or soil improvement. Examples include fruit trees, herbs, nitrogen-fixing plants, and perennial vegetables.

How Can I Start Implementing Permaculture Gardening in My Yard?

Start by observing your space, understanding its natural features, and gradually implementing permaculture techniques like mulching, composting, companion planting, and water conservation methods. Gradually incorporating these practices can kickstart your journey into permaculture gardening.

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